4 Player Types by Richard Bartle, Ph.D
4 Player Types was created by Richard Bartle while he was designing the world' first text-based social virtual world game. This gamification framework became widely adapted by many gamification experts.
The framework breaks down 4 types of players in a 2x2 matrix.
"Acting" is a unilateral interaction that generally focuses around the self accomplishment while they are in their flow. This means they want to win, accomplish, and rank on the top.
"Interacting" is a bilateral interaction and generally intrinsically enjoy without a clear objective.
"Players" focuses on human interactions
"World" focuses on non social elements of the environment
Bartle is the author of Designing Virtual Worlds.
4 Keys 2 Fun by Nicole Lazzaro, Ph.D
4 Keys 2 Fun is a gamification framework created by Nicole Lazzaro. In her framework, she divides "fun" into 4 distinct categories:
Hard Fun - This is when people have fun when they are overcoming challenges and obtaining mastery. Focuses on goals and requires discipline and strategies.
Easy Fun - This is when people have fun when they get to use their imaginations and make decisions without stress and anything at risk.
People Fun - This is when people have fun when it involves other people. It could be for leisure or competitions without any rewards for winning.
Serious Fun - This is when people have fun when there is something to gain for winning. The incentive for winning could be for personal reasons or for social reasons.
Flow Theory by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Ph.D
Flow Theory is a popular framework learned in behavioral psychology created by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. The theory states that as skill increased, challenges also must increased. If challenges do not increase as skill is increased, the person will fall into boredom. If the challenge increases by skill level does not increase, the person will fall into a state of anxiety. So starting out as a low skill with low challenge, is the ideal starting point into what is called a state of flow. When a person is in a state of flow, that is when they enjoy the activity the most.
This knowledge is important for teachers to understand for their students to get into the zone, or in this case into the "flow".
Hook Model by Nir Eyal, MBA
Hook Model is an addictive behavior model created by Nir Eyal. The model states that there are 4 phases required to form the first layer of addiction.
Trigger - This is a notification or a reminder to do an action
Action - This could be a click of a button a string of objectives
Variable Reward - This could be a spinning wheel, mystery box, raffle ticket, or guessing the number to keep the person in suspense. The key word is variable to make the prize a unpredictable element in the reward. This is why gamblers get addicted to gambling at casinos. In a classroom, this is the way to get students addicted to certain tasks which can be beneficial.
Investment - After receiving the variable reward the person must invest a little bit back. Investments could be investing time, energy, money, or even as small as a click of a button.